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Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the third largest city in India and is the center of India's fifth-largest metropolitan area. Located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau, it is the capital of the southern Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is known as the "Silicon Valley of India" because of its role as the nation's leading information technology (IT) exporter. Located at a height of over 3,000 feet (914.4 m) above sea level, Bangalore is known for its pleasant climate throughout the year. Its elevation is the highest among the major large cities of India. The city is amongst the top ten preferred entrepreneurial locations in the world.

A succession of South Indian dynasties, the Western Gangas, the Cholas and the Hoysalas, ruled the present region of Bangalore until in 1537 CE, Kempé Gowda – a feudatory ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bangalore. In 1638, the Marathas conquered and ruled Bangalore for almost 50 years, after which the Mughals captured and sold the city to the Mysore Kingdom. It later passed into the hands of Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan, and was captured by the British after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore, and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, and a town grew up around it, which was governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, and remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949. The existing Kannada name, Bengaluru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006.

Bangalore is home to many well-recognised educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Indian Institute of Management (Bangalore) (IIMB), National Law School of India University (NLSIU) and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS). Numerous public sector heavy industries, technology companies, aerospace, telecommunications, and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Infosys, and Wipro are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is a major economic and cultural hub and the second-fastest growing major metropolis in India. The city also houses the Kannada film industry. As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Bangalore confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems.  With a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$83 billion, Bangalore is fourth among the top 15 cities contributing to India's overall GDP.

Etymology

The name "Bangalore" represents an anglicised version of the Kannada language name, "Benga?uru" ???????? ['be?g??u?ru] ( listen). The earliest reference to the name "Bengaluru" was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vira gallu" (????????) (literally, "hero stone", a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengaluru" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE. It states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada (Old Kannada).

An apocryphal or a fabricated story recounts that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru" (literally, "town of boiled beans"), which eventually evolved into "Bengaluru". Suryanath Kamath has put forward an explanation of a possible floral origin of the name, being derived from benga, the Kannada term for Pterocarpus marsupium (also known as the Indian Kino Tree), a species of dry and moist deciduous trees, that grew abundantly in the region.

On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengaluru. On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change. The government of Karnataka accepted the proposal, and it was decided to officially implement the name change from 1 November 2006. However, the city has still not officially implemented this name, as the process has stalled due to delays in getting clearances from the Union Home Ministry.

History

The Begur Nageshwara Temple was built in Bangalore around c. 860, during the reign of the Western Ganga Dynasty.

Someshwara Temple dates from the Chola era

A recent discovery of Stone Age artifacts during the 2001 census of India at Jalahalli, Sidhapura and Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalore's outskirts today, suggest probable human settlement around 4,000 BCE. Around 1,000 BCE (Iron Age), burial grounds were established at Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus, Tiberius, and Claudius found at Yeswanthpur and HAL indicate that Bangalore was involved in trans-oceanic trade with ancient civilisations in 27 BCE.

The region of modern day Bangalore was part of several successive South Indian kingdoms. Between the fourth and the tenth centuries, the Bangalore region was ruled by the Western Ganga Dynasty of Karnataka, the first dynasty to set up effective control over the region. According to Edgar Thurston there were twenty eight kings who ruled Gangavadi from the start of the Christian era till its conquest by the Cholas. These kings belonged to two distinct dynasties: the earlier line of the Solar race which had a succession of seven kings of the Ratti or Reddi tribe, and the later line of the Ganga race. The Western Gangas ruled the region initially as a sovereign power (350 – 550), and later as feudatories of the Chalukyas of Badami, followed by the Rashtrakutas till the tenth century. The Begur Nageshwara Temple was commissioned around 860, during the reign of the Western Ganga King Ereganga Nitimarga I and extended by his successor Nitimarga II. Around 1004, during the reign of Rajendra Chola I, the Cholas defeated the Western Gangas, and captured Bangalore. During this period, the Bangalore region witnessed the migration of many groups - warriors, administrators, traders, artisans, pastorals, cultivators, and religious personnel from Tamil Nadu and other Kannada speaking regions. The Chokkanathaswamy temple at Domlur, the Aigandapura complex near Hesaraghatta, Mukthi Natheshwara Temple at Binnamangala, Choleshwara Temple at Begur, Someshwara Temple at Madiwala, date from the Chola era.

In 1117, the Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana defeated the Cholas in the Battle of Talakad in south Karnataka, and extended its rule over the region. Vishnuvardhana expelled the Cholas from all parts of Mysore state. By the end of the 13th century, Bangalore became a source of contention between two warring cousins, the Hoysala ruler Veera Ballala III of Halebidu and Ramanatha, who administered from the Hoysala held territory in Tamil Nadu. Veera Ballala III had appointed a civic head at Hudi (now within Bangalore Municipal Corporation limits), thus promoting the village to the status of a town. After Veera Ballala III's death in 1343, the next empire to rule the region was the Vijayanagara Empire, which itself saw the rise of four dynasties, the Sangamas (1336 – 1485), the Saluvas (1485 – 1491), the Tuluvas (1491 – 1565), and the Aravidu (1565 – 1646). During the reign of the Vijayanagara Empire, Achyuta Deva Raya of the Tuluva Dynasty raised the Shivasamudra Dam across the Arkavati river at Hesaraghatta, whose reservoir is the present city's supply of regular piped water.

Foundation and early modern history

Bangalore Fort in 1860 showing fortifications and barracks. The fort was originally built by Kempe Gowda I as a mud fort in 1537.

Bangalore Palace, built in 1887 in Tudor architectural style was modelled on the Windsor Castle in England.

Modern Bangalore had its beginning in 1537 by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempé Gowda I, who aligned with the Vijayanagara empire to campaign against Gangaraja who he defeated and expelled to Kanchi, and who built a mud-brick fort for the people at the site that would become the central part of modern Bangalore. Kempe Gowda was restricted by rules placed by Achuta Deva Raya who feared the potential power of KempeGowda and did not allow for a formidalbe stone fort. Kempé Gowda referred to the new town as his "gandubhumi" or "Land of Heroes".  Within the fort, the town was divided into smaller divisions—each called a "pete" (IPA: [pe?te?]). The town had two main streets—Chikkapeté Street, which ran east-west, and Doddapeté Street, which ran north-south. Their intersection formed the Doddapeté Square—the heart of Bangalore. Kempé Gowda I's successor, Kempé Gowda II, built four towers that marked Bangalore's boundary. During the Vijayanagara rule, many saints and poets referred to Bangalore as "Devarayanagara" and "Kalyanapura" or "Kalyanapuri" ("Auspicious City").

After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565 in the Battle of Talikota, Bangalore's rule changed hands several times. Kempé Gowda declared independence, then in 1638, a large Adil Shahi Bijapur army led by Ranadulla Khan and accompanied by his second in command Shahji Bhonslé defeated Kempé Gowda III,[34] and Bangalore was given to Shahji as a jagir (feudal estate). In 1687, the Mughal general Kasim Khan, under orders from Aurangzeb, defeated Ekoji I, son of Shahji, and sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704), the then ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore for three lakh rupees.[35] After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali, Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. Hyder Ali is credited with building the Delhi and Mysore gates at the northern and southern ends of the city in 1760. The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's son Tipu Sultan. Hyder and Tipu contributed towards the beautification of the city by building Lal Bagh Botanical Gardens in 1760. Under them, Bangalore developed into a commercial and military centre of strategic importance.

Bangalore fort was captured by the British armies under Lord Cornwallis on 21 March 1791 during the Third Anglo-Mysore War and formed a centre for British resistance against Tipu Sultan.  Following Tipu's death in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), the British returned administrative control of the Bangalore "pete" to the Maharaja of Mysore and was incorporated into the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. The old city ("pete") developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore. The Residency of Mysore State was first established in Mysore City in 1799 and later shifted to Bangalore in 1804. It was abolished in 1843 only to be revived in 1881 at Bangalore and to be closed down permanently in 1947, with Indian independence.  The British found Bangalore to be a pleasant and appropriate place to station their garrison and therefore moved their cantonment to Bangalore from Seringapatam in 1809 near Halsur, about four miles north-east of the City. A town grew up around the cantonment, by absorbing several villages in the area. The new centre had its own municipal and administrative apparatus, though technically it was a British enclave within the territory of the Wodeyar Kings of the Princely State of Mysore.  Two important developments which contributed to the rapid growth of the city, include the introduction of telegraph connections to all major Indian cities in 1853, and a rail connection to Madras in 1864.

Later modern and contemporary history

The Bangalore torpedo was invented in Bangalore in 1922.

In the 19th century, Bangalore essentially became a twin city, with the "pete", whose residents were predominantly Kannadigas, and the "cantonment" created by the British, whose residents were predominantly Tamils. Throughout the 19th century, the Cantonment gradually expanded and acquired a distinct cultural and political salience as it was governed directly by the British and was known as the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore. While it remained in the princely territory of Mysore, Cantonment had a large military presence and a cosmopolitan civilian population that came from outside the princely state of Mysore, including Britons, Anglo-Indians, and migrant Tamil labourers and contractors. City, on the other hand, had a largely Kannada-speaking population.

Bangalore was hit by a plague epidemic in 1898 that claimed nearly 3,500 lives. The crisis caused by the outbreak catalysed the city's sanitation process. Telephone lines were laid to help coordinate anti-plague operations. Regulations for building new houses with proper sanitation facilities came into effect. A health officer was appointed and the city divided into four wards for better coordination. Victoria Hospital was inaugurated in 1900 by Lord Curzon, the then Governor-General of British India.  New extensions in Malleswaram and Basavanagudi were developed in the north and south of the pete.  In 1903, motor vehicles came to be introduced in Bangalore.  In 1906, Bangalore became one of the first cities in India to have electricity from hydro power, powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra.  The Indian Institute of Science was established in 1909, which subsequently played a major role in developing the city as a science research hub.  In 1912, the Bangalore torpedo, a defensive explosive weapon widely used in World War I and World War II, was devised in Bangalore by British army officer Captain McClintock of the Madras Sappers and Miners.

Bangalore's reputation as the "Garden City of India" began in 1927 with the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to improve the city.  Bangalore played an important role during the Indian independence movement. Mahatma Gandhi visited the city in 1927 and 1934 and addressed public meetings here. In 1926, the labour unrest in Binny Mills due to demand by textile workers for payment of bonus resulted in lathi charging and police firing, resulting in the death of four workers, and several injuries.  In July 1928, there were notable communal disturbances in Bangalore, when a Ganesh idol was removed from a school compound in the Sultanpet area of Bangalore. In 1940, the first flight between Bangalore and Bombay took off, which placed the city on India's urban map.

After India's independence in August 1947, Bangalore remained in the newly carved Mysore State of which the Maharaja of Mysore was the Rajapramukh (appointed governor).  The "City Improvement Trust" was formed in 1945, and in 1949, the "City" and the "Cantonment" merged to form the Bangalore City Corporation. The Government of Karnataka later constituted the Bangalore Development Authority in 1976 to co-ordinate the activities of these two bodies. Public sector employment and education provided opportunities for Kannadigas from the rest of the state to migrate to the city. Bangalore experienced rapid growth in the decades 1941–51 and 1971–81, which saw the arrival of many immigrants from northern Karnataka. By 1961, Bangalore had become the sixth largest city in India, with a population of 1,207,000.  In the decades that followed, Bangalore's manufacturing base continued to expand with the establishment of private companies such as MICO (Motor Industries Company), which set up its manufacturing plant in the city.

By the 1980s, it was clear that urbanization had spilled over the current boundaries, and in 1986, the Bangalore Metropolitan Region Development Authority, was established to co-ordinate the development of the entire region as a single unit.  On 8 February 1981, a major fire broke out at Venus Circus in Bangalore, where more than 92 lives were lost, the majority of them being children. Bangalore experienced a growth in its real estate market in the 1980s and 1990s, spurred by capital investors from other parts of the country who converted Bangalore's large plots and colonial bungalows into multi-storied apartments.  In 1985, Texas Instruments became the first multinational corporation to set up base in Bangalore. Other information technology companies followed suit and by the end of the 20th century, Bangalore had established itself as the Silicon Valley of India.  Today, Bangalore is India's third most populous city. During the 21st century, Bangalore has suffered terrorist attacks in 2008, 2010, and 2013.

Geography

The Hesaraghatta Lake in Bangalore

Bangalore lies in the southeast of the South Indian state of Karnataka. It is in the heart of the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger Precambrian Deccan Plateau) at an average elevation of 900 m (2,953 ft).:8 It is located at 12.97°N 77.56°E and covers an area of 741 km2 (286 sq mi). The majority of the city of Bangalore lies in the Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka and the surrounding rural areas are a part of the Bangalore Rural district. The Government of Karnataka has carved out the new district of Ramanagara from the old Bangalore Rural district.[citation needed]

The topology of Bangalore is flat except for a central ridge running NNE-SSW. The highest point is Vidyaranyapura Doddabettahalli, which is 962 metres (3,156 feet) and lies on this ridge. No major rivers run through the city, although the Arkavathi and South Pennar cross paths at the Nandi Hills, 60 kilometres (37 miles) to the north. River Vrishabhavathi, a minor tributary of the Arkavathi, arises within the city at Basavanagudi and flows through the city. The rivers Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi together carry much of Bangalore's sewage. A sewerage system, constructed in 1922, covers 215 km2 (83 sq mi) of the city and connects with five sewage treatment centres located in the periphery of Bangalore.

In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda I constructed many lakes to meet the town's water requirements. The Kempambudhi Kere, since overrun by modern development, was prominent among those lakes. In the earlier half of 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks was commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore, 1926–41 CE) to provide a water supply to the city. Currently, the river Kaveri provides around 80% of the total water supply to the city with the remaining 20% being obtained from the Thippagondanahalli and Hesaraghatta reservoirs of the Arkavathi river. Bangalore receives 800 million litres (211 million US gallons) of water a day, more than any other Indian city. However, Bangalore sometimes does face water shortages, especially during summer- more so in the years of low rainfall. A random sampling study of the Air Quality Index (AQI) of twenty stations within the city indicated scores that ranged from 76 to 314, suggesting heavy to severe air pollution around areas of traffic concentration.

Bangalore has a handful of freshwater lakes and water tanks, the largest of which are Madivala tank, Hebbal lake, Ulsoor lake, Yediyur Lake and Sankey Tank. Groundwater occurs in silty to sandy layers of the alluvial sediments. The Peninsular Gneissic Complex (PGC) is the most dominant rock unit in the area and includes granites, gneisses and migmatites, while the soils of Bangalore consist of red laterite and red, fine loamy to clayey soils.

Vegetation in the city is primarily in the form of large deciduous canopy and minority coconut trees. Though Bangalore has been classified as a part of the seismic zone II (a stable zone), it has experienced quakes of magnitude as high as 4.5.

Climate

Bangalore has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with distinct wet and dry seasons. Due to its high elevation, Bangalore usually enjoys a more moderate climate throughout the year, although occasional heat waves can make summer somewhat uncomfortable.  The coolest month is December with an average low temperature of 15.4 °C (59.7 °F) and the hottest month is April with an average high temperature of 36 °C (97 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded in Bangalore is 38.9 °C (102 °F) (recorded in March 1931). However, the suburbs of bangalore recorded temperatures as high as 41 °C (106 °F). The lowest ever recorded is 7.8 °C (46 °F) (recorded in January 1884). Winter temperatures rarely drop below 12 °C (54 °F), and summer temperatures seldom exceed 37 °C (99 °F). Bangalore receives rainfall from both the northeast and the southwest monsoons and the wettest months are September, October and August, in that order.[65] The summer heat is moderated by fairly frequent thunderstorms, which occasionally cause power outages and local flooding. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 179 millimetres (7 in) recorded on 1 October 1997.

Demographics

 With an estimated population of 8.5 million in 2011, Bangalore is the third most populous city in India and the 18th most populous city in the world.  Bangalore was the fastest-growing Indian metropolis after New Delhi between 1991 and 2001, with a growth rate of 38% during the decade. Residents of Bangalore are referred to as Bangaloreans in English and Bengaloorinavaru in Kannada.  As per the 1991 census, the linguistic demographics of Bangalore were: Kannada (38.38%), Tamil (21.38%), Telugu (16.66%), Urdu (12.65%) and others. The cosmopolitan nature of the city has resulted in the migration of people from other states to Bangalore, which has in recent years given rise to tensions between immigrants and locals.

According to the 2001 census of India, 69.4% of Bangalore's population is Hindu, roughly the same as the national average. Muslims comprise 23.4% of the population. Christians and Jains account for 5.8% and 1.1% of the population, respectively, double that of their national averages. The city has a literacy rate of 89%.  Roughly 10% of Bangalore's population lives in slums —a relatively low proportion when compared to other cities in the developing world such as Mumbai (50%) and Nairobi (60%).  The 2008 National Crime Records Bureau statistics indicate that Bangalore accounts for 8.5% of the total crimes reported from 35 major cities in India which is a cascading increase in the crime rate when compared to the number of crimes fifteen years ago.

Bangalore suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast-growing cities in developing countries: rapidly escalating social inequality, mass displacement and dispossession, proliferation of slum settlements, and epidemic public health crisis due to severe water shortage and sewage problems in poor and working-class neighbourhoods.

The languages that are also spoken in Bangalore other than Kannada are Urdu, Indian English, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Hindi. A vernacular dialect of Kannada, known as Bangalore Kannada (or the southern dialect of Kannada) is spoken in Bangalore and the adjoining Mysore regions. English, (as an Indian dialect), is extensively spoken and is the principal language of the professional and business class.

The major communities of Bangalore who share a long history in the city are the Kannadigas, the Tamilians, and the Telugus. Already in the 16th century, Bangalore had speakers of Tamil and Telugu, besides those who spoke Kannada. Tamil-speaking settlers migrated to Bangalore in three major waves, the first after the 10th century, when the Cholas of Tamil Nadu captured the city; the second during the Vijayanagara period, and the third, in the 18th century, after the need for militia increased for the Mysore rulers, Nawabs of Arcot, and the British East India Company. Telugu-speaking people initially came to Bangalore on invitation by the Mysore royalty (a few of them have lineage dating back to Krishnadevaraya), while the arrival of the Marathi speakers in Bangalore was a historical process when Bangalore was under Maratha rule.

Other communities include the Tuluvas and the Konkanis of coastal Karnataka, the Kodavas of the Kodagu district of Karnataka, as well as Malayalees, Punjabis, Rajasthanis, Gujaratis, Sindhis, and Bengalis.[89] Bangalore once had a large Anglo-Indian population, the second largest after Calcutta. Today, there are around 10,000 Anglo-Indians in Bangalore. Christians form a sizeable section of Bangalorean society, with migrant Tamil Christians forming the majority of the Christian population, while Kannada Catholics, Mangalorean Catholics, and others form the rest of the population. Muslims form a very diverse population, consisting of Dakhini and Urdu-speaking Muslims, Kutchi Memons, Labbay, and Mappilas.

Pollution control

Bangalore generates about 3,000 tonnes of solid waste per day, of which about 1,139 tonnes are collected and sent to composting units such as the Karnataka Composting Development Corporation. The remaining solid waste collected by the municipality is dumped in open spaces or on roadsides outside the city. In 2008, Bangalore produced around 2,500 metric tonnes of solid waste, and increased to 5000 metric tonnes in 2012, which is transported from collection units located near Hesaraghatta Lake, to the garbage dumping sites. The city suffers significantly with dust pollution, hazardous waste disposal, and disorganized, unscientific waste retrievals. The IT hub, Whitefield region is the most polluted area in Bangalore.

Slums

According to a 2012 report submitted to the World Bank by Karnataka Slum Clearance Board, Bangalore has 862 slums from total of around 2000 slums in Karnataka. The families living in the slum are not ready to move into the temporary shelters.  42% of the households migrated from different parts of India and 43% of the households had remained in the slums for over 10 years. The Karnataka Municipality, works to shift 300 families annually to newly constructed buildings. One third of these slum clearance projects lack basic service connections, 60% of slum dwellers lack complete water supply lines and share BWSSB water supply.

Waste management

Ιn 2012 Bangalore generated 2.1 million tonnes of Municipal Solid Waste (195.4 kg/cap/yr).[131] The waste management scenario in the state of Karnataka is regulated by the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) under the aegis of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) which is a Central Government entity. As part of their Waste Management Guidelines the Government of Karnataka through the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) has authorized few well-established companies to manage the bio-medical waste and hazardous waste in the state of Karnataka.

Economy

Bengaluru's INR523 billion (US$8.6 billion) economy (2006–07 Net District Income) makes it one of the major economic centres in India,  with the value of city's exports totalling INR432 billion (US$7.1 billion) in 2004–05.  With an economic growth of 10.3%, Bangalore is the second fastest growing major metropolis in India, and is also the country's fourth largest fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) market. Forbes considers Bangalore one of "The Next Decade's Fastest-Growing Cities". With a per capita income of INR74709 (US$1,200) in 2006–07, the city is the third largest hub for high-net-worth individuals and is home to over 10,000-dollar millionaires and about 60,000 super-rich people who have an investable surplus of INR45 million (US$738,000) and INR5 million (US$82,000) respectively.

The headquarters of several public sector undertakings such as Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML), Central Manufacturing Technology Institute (CMTI) and HMT (formerly Hindustan Machine Tools) are located in Bangalore. In June 1972 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established under the Department of Space and headquartered in the city. Bangalore also houses several research and development centers for many firms such as ABB, Airbus, Bosch, Boeing, GE, GM, Google, Microsoft, Mercedes-Benz, Nokia, Oracle, Philips, Shell, Toyota and Tyco.

Bangalore is called as the Silicon Valley of India because of the large number of information technology companies located in the city which contributed 33% of India's INR1442 billion (US$24 billion) IT exports in 2006–07.  Bangalore's IT industry is divided into three main clusters – Software Technology Parks of India (STPI); International Tech Park, Bangalore (ITPB); and Electronics City. UB City, the headquarters of the United Breweries Group, is a high-end commercial zone.  Infosys and Wipro, India's third and fourth largest software companies are headquartered in Bangalore, as are many of the global SEI-CMM Level 5 Companies.

The growth of IT has presented the city with unique challenges. Ideological clashes sometimes occur between the city's IT moguls, who demand an improvement in the city's infrastructure, and the state government, whose electoral base is primarily the people in rural Karnataka. The encouragement of high-tech industry in Bangalore, for example, has not favoured local employment development, but has instead increased land values and forced out small enterprise.  The state has also resisted the massive investments required to reverse the rapid decline in intra-city transport which has already begun to drive new and expanding businesses to other centres across India. Bengaluru is a hub for biotechnology related industry in India and in the year 2005, around 47% of the 265 biotechnology companies in India were located here; including Biocon, India's largest biotechnology company.

 

Transport

Air

The new Kempegowda International Airport is located in Devanahalli.

Bangalore is served by Kempegowda International Airport (IATA: BLR, ICAO: VOBL), located at Devanahalli, about 40 kilometres (25 miles) from the city centre. It was formerly called Bengaluru International Airport. The airport started operations from 24 May 2008 and is a private airport managed by a consortium led by the GVK Group. The city was earlier served by the HAL Airport at Vimanapura, a residential locality in the eastern part of the city. The airport is now the fourth busiest in India in terms of passenger traffic and the number of air traffic movements (ATMs). Taxis and air conditioned volvo buses operated by BMTC connect the airport with the city.

Rail

A schematic map of Bangalore.

A rapid transit system called the Namma Metro is being built. A 7 kilometres (4 miles) stretch from Bayappanahalli to MG Road was opened to public on 20 October 2011, while another 10 kilometres (6 miles) stretch from Malleswaram to Peenya was opened on 1 March 2014. Once completed, this will encompass a 42.3 km (26.3 mi) elevated and underground rail network comprising 41 stations. It is expected to connect central locations in Bangalore to the airport near Devanahalli as well as the Chikballapur regions.[150][151] This much-delayed project is the city's primary response to the worsening intra-city transport infrastructure which has become a major deterrent to continued business growth.

Bangalore is a divisional headquarters in the South Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways. There are four major railway stations in the city: Bangalore City junction, Bangalore Cantonment railway station, Yeshwantapur junction and Krishnarajapuram railway station, with railway lines towards Jolarpettai in the east, Chikballapur in the north-east, Guntakal in the north, Tumkur in the northwest, Nelamangala in the west, Mysore in the southwest and Salem in the south. Bangalore is well connected by rail to most cities in Karnataka, as well as with other major cities in India.

The Rail Wheel Factory is Asia's second largest manufacturer of wheel and axle for railways and is headquartered in Yelahanka, Bangalore.[citation needed]

Road

BMTC's Volvo buses are a popular mode of commuting within Bangalore.

Buses operated by Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) are an important and reliable means of public transport available in the city.  While commuters can buy tickets on boarding these buses, BMTC also provides an option of a bus pass to frequent users. BMTC runs air-conditioned luxury buses on major routes, and also operates shuttle services from various parts of the city to Kempegowda International Airport . The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation operates 6,918 buses on 6,352 schedules, connecting Bangalore with other parts of Karnataka as well as other states. The main bus depots that KSRTC maintains are the Kempegowda Bus Station, locally known as "Majestic bus stand", where most of the out station buses ply from. Some of the KSRTC buses to Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh ply from Shantinagar Bus Station, Satellite Bus Station at Mysore road and Baiyappanahalli satellite bus station. BMTC is the first metropolitan transport corporation to introduce air conditioned buses in India.

Three-wheeled, green and black auto-rickshaws, referred to as autos, are a popular form of transport. They are metered and can accommodate up to three passengers. Taxis, commonly called City Taxis, are usually available too, but they are only available on call. Taxis are metered and are generally more expensive than auto-rickshaws.

There are currently 1,000[citation needed] vehicles being registered daily in Bangalore RTOs. The total number of vehicles as on date are 3,880,000 vehicles[citation needed], with a road length of 11,000 kilometres (6,835 miles).

Culture

Bangalore Karaga, one of the oldest and most important festivals in Bangalore

Yakshagana – a theatre art of coastal Karnataka is often played in town hall

Bangalore is known as the "Garden City of India" because of its gentle climate, broad streets, greenery and the presence of many public parks, such as Lal Bagh and Cubbon Park.  Bangalore is sometimes called as the "Pub Capital of India" and the "Rock/Metal Capital of India" because of its underground music scene and it is one of the premier places to hold international rock concerts.  In May 2012, Lonely Planet ranked Bangalore 3rd among the world's top 10 cities to visit.

Biannual flower shows are held at the Lal Bagh Gardens during the week of Republic Day (26 January) and Independence Day (15 August). Bangalore Karaga or "Karaga Shaktyotsava" is one of the most important and oldest festivals of Bangalore dedicated to the Hindu Goddess Draupadi. It is celebrated annually by the Thigala community, over a period of nine days in the month of March or April. The Someshwara Car festival is an annual procession of the idol of the Halasuru Someshwara Temple (Ulsoor) led by the Vokkaligas, a farming community in southern Karnataka, occurring in April. Karnataka Rajyotsava is widely celebrated on 1 November and is a public holiday in the city, to mark the formation of Karnataka state on 1 November 1956. Other popular festivals in Bangalore are Ugadi, Ram Navami, Eid ul-Fitr, Ganesh Chaturthi, St. Mary's feast, Dasara, Deepawali and Christmas.

The diversity of cuisine is reflective of the social and economic diversity of Bangalore.  Bangalore has a wide and varied mix of restaurant types and cuisines and Bangaloreans deem eating out as an intrinsic part of their culture. Roadside vendors, tea stalls, and South Indian, North Indian, Chinese and Western fast food are all very popular in the city. Udupi restaurants are very popular and serve predominantly vegetarian, regional cuisine.

Art and literature

Bangalore did not have an effective contemporary art representation, as compared to Delhi and Mumbai, until recently during the 1990s, several art galleries sprang up, notable being the government established National Gallery of Modern Art.  Bangalore's international art festival, Art Bengaluru, was established in 2010, and is South India's only art festival.

Kannada literature appears to have flourished in Bangalore even before Kempe Gowda laid the foundations of the city. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Kannada literature was enriched by the Vachanas (a form of rhythmic writing) composed by the heads of the Veerashaiva Mathas (monastery) in Bangalore. As a cosmopolitan city, Bangalore has also encouraged the growth of Telugu, Urdu, and English literatures. The headquarters of the Kannada Sahitya Parishat, a nonprofit organisation that promotes the Kannada language, is located in Bangalore.  The city has its own literary festival, known as the "Bangalore Literature Festival", which was inaugurated in 2012.

Theatre, music, and dance

Bangalore is home to the Kannada film industry, which churns out about 80 Kannada movies each year. Bangalore also has a very active and vibrant theatre culture with popular theatres being Ravindra Kalakshetra and the more recently opened Ranga Shankara.  The city has a vibrant English and foreign language theatre scene with places like Ranga Shankara and Chowdiah Memorial Hall leading the way in hosting performances leading to the establishment of the Amateur film industry. Kannada theatre is very popular in Bangalore, and consists mostly of political satire and light comedy. Plays are organized mostly by community organizations, but there are some amateur groups which stage plays in Kannada. Drama companies touring India under the auspicies of the British Council and Max Müller Bhavan also stage performances in the city frequently.

Bangalore is also a major centre of Indian classical music and dance. The cultural scene is very diverse due to Bangalore's mixed ethnic groups, which is reflected in its music concerts, dance performances and plays. Performances of Carnatic (South Indian) and Hindustani (North Indian) classical music, and dance forms like Bharat Natyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, Kathak, and Odissi are very popular. Yakshagana, a theatre art indigenous to coastal Karnataka is often played in town halls. The two main music seasons in Bangalore are in April–May during the Ram Navami festival, and in September–October during the Dusshera festival, when music activities by cultural organizations are at their peak.  Though both classical and contemporary music are played in Bangalore, the dominant music genre in urban Bangalore is rock music. Bangalore has its own sub-genre of music, "Bangalore Rock", which is an amalgamation of classic rock, hard rock and heavy metal, with a bit of jazz and blues in it. Notable bands from Bangalore include Raghu Dixit Project, Kryptos, Inner Sanctum, Agam, All the fat children, and Swaratma.

Education

Indian Institute of Science – one of the premier institutes of science in India

Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, one of the premier management institutes in India

Until the early 19th century, education in Bangalore was mainly run by religious leaders and restricted to students of that religion.  The western system of education was introduced during the rule of Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar. Subsequently, the British Wesleyan Mission established the first English school in 1842, St. Joseph's Indian Institutions.  The Bangalore High School was started by the Mysore Government in 1858 and Bishop Cotton Boys' School was started in 1865. In 1945 when World War II came to an end, King George Royal Indian Military Colleges was started at Bangalore by King George VI, the school is popularly known as Bangalore Military School

In post-Independent India, schools for young children (16 months–5 years) are called Nursery, kindergarten or Play school which are broadly based on Montessori or Multiple intelligence methodology of education.  Primary and secondary education in Bangalore is offered by various schools which are affiliated to one of the boards of education, such as the Secondary School Leaving Certificate (SSLC), Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), International Baccalaureate (IB), International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) and National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS).  Schools in Bangalore are either government run or are private (both aided and un-aided by the government). Bangalore has a significant number of International schools due to expats and IT crowd. After completing their secondary education, students either attend Pre University (PUC) or continue High School in one of three streams – Arts, Commerce or Science.  Alternatively, students may also enroll in Diploma courses. Upon completing the required coursework, students enroll in general or professional degrees in universities through lateral entry.

The Bangalore University, established in 1886, provides affiliation to over 500 colleges, with a total student enrolment exceeding 300,000. The university has two campuses within Bangalore – Jnanabharathi and Central College.[191] University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering was established in the year 1917, by Bharat Ratna Sir M. Visvesvaraya, At present, the UVCE is the only engineering college under the Bangalore University. Bangalore also has many private Engineering Colleges affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University. Notable among them particularly for undergraduate degrees are R.V. College of Engineering, PES Institute of Technology, BMS College of Engineering, M. S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology and Bangalore Institute of Technology.

Indian Institute of Science, which was established in 1909 in Bangalore, National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) and the Raman Research Institute are the premier institutes for scientific research and study in India. Nationally renowned professional institutes such as the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore (UASB), National Institute of Design(NID), National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), National Law School of India University (NLSIU), the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore (IIM-B),the National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology (NIANP), the Indian Statistical Institute and International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore (IIIT-B) are located in Bangalore. The city is also home to the premier mental health institution in India National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS). Bangalore also has some of the best medical colleges in the country, like St. John's Medical College (SJMC) and Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI).  The M. P. Birla Institute of Fundamental Research research institute has a branch located in Bangalore.

Media

The first printing press in Bangalore was established in 1840 in Kannada by the Wesleyan Christian Mission. In 1859, Bangalore Herald became the first English bi-weekly newspaper to be published in Bangalore and in 1860, Mysore Vrittanta Bodhini became the first Kannada newspaper to be circulated in Bangalore. Currently, Vijaya Karnataka and The Times of India are the most widely circulated Kannada and English newspapers in Bangalore respectively, closely followed by the Prajavani and Deccan Herald both owned by the Printers (Mysore) Limited – the largest print media house in Karnataka. Other newspapers like Mid-Day, Bangalore Mirror, and Udayavani provide localised news updates. On the web, Explocity provides listings information in Bangalore.

Bangalore got its first radio station when All India Radio, the official broadcaster for the Indian Government, started broadcasting from its Bangalore station on 2 November 1955. The radio transmission was AM, until in 2001, Radio City became the first private channel in India to start transmitting FM radio from Bangalore. In recent years, a number of FM channels have started broadcasting from Bangalore.  The city probably has India's oldest Amateur (Ham) Radio Club – Bangalore Amateur Radio Club (VU2ARC), which was established in 1959.

Bangalore got its first look at television when Doordarshan established a relay centre here and started relaying programs from 1 November 1981. A production centre was established in the Doordarshan's Bangalore office in 1983, thereby allowing the introduction of a news program in Kannada on 19 November 1983.  Doordarshan also launched a Kannada satellite channel on 15 August 1991 which is now named DD Chandana. The advent of private satellite channels in Bangalore started in September 1991 when Star TV started to broadcast its channels. Though the number of satellite TV channels available for viewing in Bangalore has grown over the years, the cable operators play a major role in the availability of these channels, which has led to occasional conflicts. Direct To Home (DTH) services are also available in Bangalore now.

The first Internet service provider in Bangalore was STPI, Bangalore which started offering internet services in early 1990s.[210] This Internet service was, however, restricted to corporates until VSNL started offering dial-up internet services to the general public at the end of 1995. Currently, Bangalore has the largest number of broadband Internet connections in India. In April 2013, Bangalore became the first Indian city to get free Wi-Fi hotspots, when free Wi-Fi was launched in M.G. Road and Brigade Road.

Namma Wifi is a free municipal wireless network in Bangalore, and the first such service in India. It was formally launched near the metro station on M.G. Road on 24 January 2014. The service had been proposed in the Karnataka budget for 2013-14.  M.G. Road, Brigade Road and four other locations in the city were covered on launch day. The service is also available at Traffic and Transmit Management Centres (TTMCs) at Shanthinagar, Yeshwanthpur and Koramangala, besides CMH Road in Indiranagar.  The WiFi network is operated by D-VoiS, a private internet service provider, and all expenditure is borne by the State Government.

Users can access the WiFi hotspots by opening a mobile browser, which will take them to the Namma Wifi page where they have to type in their mobile phone number to which a password is sent. The user can then browse the net for free for 30 minutes in 24 hours, after keying in the password. Users on the network experience internet speeds of about 512 kbit/s. However, access to some websites is restricted.

Sports

M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bangalore

Bangalore's pleasant climate makes it a suitable place for a variety of outdoor sports. Cricket is by far the most popular sport in Bangalore. Bangalore has many parks and gardens which provide excellent pitches for an impromptu game of cricket.  A significant number of national cricketers have come from Bangalore, including former captains Rahul Dravid and Anil Kumble. Some of the other notable players from the city who have represented India include Gundappa Vishwanath, Syed Kirmani, E. A. S. Prasanna, B. S. Chandrasekhar, Roger Binny, Venkatesh Prasad, Sunil Joshi, Robin Uthappa and Vinay Kumar. Bangalore's international cricket stadium is the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 55,000 and has hosted matches during the 1987 Cricket World Cup, 1996 Cricket World Cup and the 2011 Cricket World Cup. The Chinnaswamy Stadium is also the home of India's National Cricket Academy.

The Indian Premier League franchise Royal Challengers Bangalore and the I League club Bengaluru FC are based in the city. The city hosts the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) Bangalore Open tournament annually. Beginning September 2008, Bangalore has also been hosting the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open ATP tournament annually.  The city is also home to the Bangalore rugby football club (BRFC). Bangalore has a number of elite clubs, like Century Club, The Bangalore Golf Club, the Bowring Institute and the exclusive Bangalore Club, which counts among its previous members Winston Churchill and the Maharaja of Mysore. The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited SC is based in Bangalore.

India's Davis Cup team members, Mahesh Bhupathi  and Rohan Bopanna also reside in Bangalore. Other sports personalities from Bangalore include national swimming champion Nisha Millet, world snooker champion Pankaj Advani and former All England Open badminton champion Prakash Padukone.